Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects pensioners in London.
Work status of London households by net income quintile (2021/22)
This indicator shows that household work status is closely related to household net incomes. Overall, households with lower net incomes are more likely to include inactive, retired or unemployed adults.
For example, just 8.7% of those in the bottom 20% of the net income distribution live in households where all adults work full time, while 61.5% of those in the top 20% of the net income distribution live in households where all adults work full time. On the contrary, nearly one in five of those in the bottom net income quintile live in economically inactive households, compared to just 1.6% of those in the top net income quintile.
Old-age dependency ratio by area over time (2000 - 2030)
Both Inner and Outer London have a lower old-age dependency ratio than the rest of England. In Inner London in 2020, there were 13.6 people over the age of 65 for every 100 working-age adults. This compares to 21.6 in Outer London and 32.1 in the rest of England.
The dependency ratio reflects the degree to which the working-age population and national and local government might need to support those who are retired. As the population ages, the dependency ratio is projected to increase quite rapidly.
Proportion of households in poverty by family type (2021/22)
Poverty rates are highest among families made up of single adults with children. In both London and the rest of England 45% of these family types are counted as being in poverty. Other single person household types follow next, with couple households showing lower poverty rates. Couples without children are the least likely to be in poverty - 14% of this family type were in poverty in London for 2021/22.
If we look at the proportion of all families in poverty in London, those with children make up more than half (55%) with single persons without children making up nearly a third (32%).
Poverty for children, pensioners and working-age adults (2011/2012 and 2021/2022)
Children, working age adults and pensioners all have higher rates of poverty in London than in the rest of England. Of the three age groups, children have the highest poverty rates, with 33% of children in London in poverty in 2021/22, compared to 22% of working-age adults and 23% of pensioners.
In London, poverty rates for children and working-age adults fell between 2011/12 and 2021/22. In the rest of England, poverty rates for children went up in the same time period, and for working-age adults stayed the same.
In both London and the rest of England, the proportion of pensioners in poverty went up in this time period.
Proportion of Londoners in poverty after housing costs by age band (2021/22)
Poverty rates after housing costs were highest among children and young people in 2021/22, in both London and the rest of England.
- 160,000 children aged four and under live in households in poverty
- Almost a third (34%) of children aged 5-9 are in households in poverty
- Over a third of 10-19 year olds live in households that are in poverty (38% of those aged 10-14 and 34% of those aged 15-19).
In contrast, 17% of Londoners aged 30-34 live in households that are in poverty - the lowest rate for any age group.
Poverty rates in London are higher than those in the rest of England for people of most age groups, except for children aged 0-4 and adults aged 30-39 and 60-64.
The impacts of housing costs on poverty in the capital can again be seen by comparing these findings to those from measures of poverty before housing costs (BHC). Poverty …
Households are considered to be below the UK poverty line if their income is below 60% of the median household income after housing costs for that year.
Number of children, adults, and pensioners in London in poverty by working status (2011/2012, 2016/2017 and 2021/2022)
In London people counted as being in poverty most frequently live in working households. This has been consistently the case for the last decade. In 2021/22 we find some 910,000 people in poverty are living in working households whereas just 370,000 in poverty are living in working-age workless households.
A similar pattern is true if we look at children in poverty. 510,000 children in poverty live in households where someone is in work, whereas 160,000 live in workless households.
230,000 pensioners in London are in poverty
Poverty rates by demographic characteristics in London (2021/22)
Poverty rates vary significantly across different demographic groups in London. The highest poverty rates are experienced by workless families (52%) and households comprised of single people with children (47%). Black and minority ethnic groups are far more likely to be in poverty (33%) than white people (18%), and single pensioners also see a higher than average poverty rate at 30%.
Generally speaking all the groups included here have seen declining poverty rates since 2018/19 (the peak of the overall time series) apart from single pensioners, couples without children and workless families.
Population by age-groups (2021)
More than one in 5 people living in Inner London (23.1%) are aged between 25 and 34. This compares to just 12.7% of those in the rest of England. More broadly, in Inner London, almost half the population is made up out of those who are in their early twenties to early forties (47.2%), compared to the rest of England where three in 10 (31.1%) are in this age group, and Inner London is home to a higher proportion of young people than Outer London.
This is caused by people moving to Inner London for work early in their careers and then leaving as they start families. The largest five-year age band is 25 to 29 year olds in Inner London, 35 to 39 year olds in Outer London and 50 to 54 year olds in the rest of England. A relatively small proportion of London’s population is over 65; 9.4% in Inner London and 13.6% in Outer London compared to 19.…