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The People theme gives an overview of the demography and rich diversity of London and Londoners. It provides a frame through which poverty and inequality of outcomes can be explored across London's Poverty Profile.

Births and deaths in London (2010-2020)

Each year, more people are born in London than die. Just under 116,000 babies were born in 2020 and nearly 59,000 died. Although births continued to decrease somewhat, they were at a broadly similar level in 2020 to 2019, whereas deaths show a substantial increase presumably due to the COVID-19 pandemic with a 10,000 increase on the previous year when around 49,000 people died. So, in 2020, the net natural population change was an increase of 57,000 whereas in 2019 it was 71,000.

The number of births in London has fallen slightly from the peak of 134,000 following a mini baby boom in years running up to 2012. Newham and Tower Hamlets were the boroughs with the highest levels of net births in 2020, with 3,800 and 3,086 respectively.

This page brings together a series of maps using data from our London borough comparison tile.

Boroughs have been labelled higher, lower, or mid (average) according to threshold values of one standard deviation above or below the mean of all the borough values.

Child dependency ratio by area over time (2000-2035)

This indicator shows how many children (aged 0-15) there are for every 100 working-age people (16-64). It is an indication of how many under 16s working-age people need to support.

The child dependency ratio in the rest of England is higher compared to Inner London, but lower compared to Outer London.

In 2022, there were 31.4 children for every 100 working-age adults within Outer London. This figure is both higher than the child dependency ratio in Inner London (22.7 children per 100 working-age adults) and the rest of England (29.8 children per 100 working-age adults).

Inner London’s child dependency ratio has fallen significantly since the Millennium. In the year 2000, there were 27.8 children for every 100 working-age adults in Inner London - compared to 22.7 in 2022. Outer London’s child dependency ratio has stayed consistent in this ti…

Childhood obesity for children in Year 6 by London borough (2012/13 and 2022/23)

Childhood obesity is more prevalent in London than England overall. In 2022/23, 24.8% of children in Year 6 were considered obese in London, compared to 22.7% in England.

Over the last decade, the prevalence of childhood obesity has risen by 2.4 percentage points in London and 3.8 percentage points in England. The majority of London boroughs had a higher prevalence of childhood obesity than England overall in both 2012/13 and 2022/23.

Public Health England’s latest figures in 2022/23 show that Barking and Dagenham has the highest proportion of childhood obesity out of all London boroughs at 31.7%. The borough also had the largest rise in childhood obesity since 2012/13 (a 6.5 percentage point increase). At the other end of the scale, 12% of Year 6 children in Richmond upon Thames are obese in 2022/23 with just a 0.3 percentage point decrea…

London's non-UK born population by country of birth (2010 and 2020)

Of Londoners not born in the UK, more were born in India than any other country. 349,000 Londoners were born in India and the second most common non-UK born country is Nigeria with a population of 135,000.

The foreign-born population in London from most countries has increased since 2010. For example, there were around 77,000 more people born in India living in London in 2020 than there were in 2010. The population of those born in Romania and Italy more than doubled over the decade.

Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births (2001-03 to 2020-22)

In 2020-2022 the average number of deaths per 1,000 live births was higher in England (4.0) than in London (3.6).

To get to this point, infant mortality rates had fallen significantly in both London and England over the last two decades. In 2001-2003 the rate was slightly higher in London than in England overall, with an average of 5.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, while in England this figure was 5.4. In 2009-2011 the infant mortality rates were on average similar (4.4) in both London and England.

In the years since, the infant mortality rate has fallenfell further in London (a reduction of 1 death per 1,000 live births) than in England (a reduction of 0.5 deaths per 1,000 live births), until 2014-16, which saw increases in London contrasting with England staying essentially the same.

The data is based on three-year averages and therefore …

Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births by London borough (2019-21)

Whilst infant mortality rates vary significantly across London boroughs, in all but nine boroughs, they are lower than in England overall. 

The average number of deaths per 1,000 live births in 2019 to 2021 was 3.3 in London, whereas in England it was 3.7. Hammersmith and Fulham is the borough with the highest infant mortality rate in London (6.1 per 1,000 live births). Camden is the London borough with the lowest infant mortality rate (1.7 per 1,000 live births).

Qualification levels of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged KS5 leavers in London (2021/22)

In 2021/22, the majority of London’s KS5 school leavers of both disadvantaged (80%) and non-disadvantaged (86%) backgrounds had Level 3 qualifications (e.g. A-levels).

This is in contrast to the rest of England. A slightly lower proportion (84%) of non-disadvantaged KS5 school leavers had Level 3 qualifications, while only 67% of disadvantaged KS5 school leavers had a Level 3 qualification.

According to the Department for Education, students are considered disadvantaged in Year 11 and attract pupil premium funding if they are eligible for free school meals at any point in the last six years, have been looked after by the local authority, or have been adopted from care.

Economic activity status of Londoners aged 16 and over (2023 Q3)

More than 4.7 million Londoners – 65.7% of the adult population – were in work of some kind in the year to September 2023. This is higher than the 60.4% of adults who are employed in the rest of England. 

Nearly one third of adults in London are classed as economically inactive (31%) - which means they are not employed, and not looking for a job or able to start work. There are many reasons someone might be economically inactive, such as  because they are too ill to work, retired, or a student.

Labour market activity by sex

There are over 296,500 more men in work in London than women. Men who live in London are also more likely to be self-employed than women – 14.2% compared to 7.8%. 

Women are significantly more likely to be economically inactive than men, with 38.6% of women not working compared to 29.9% of men. For many types of inactivit…

Life expectancy at birth by borough for men and women (2020 to 2022)

This indicator shows overall life expectancy at birth in each London borough.

Overall life expectancy is consistently higher for women than for men across all London boroughs (2020-2022). The highest life expectancy for women is in Kensington and Chelsea (86.3 years), and in Richmond upon Thames for men (82.4).

The lowest life expectancy for both men and women is in Barking and Dagenham - 76.3 years and 80.4 years respectively.

Healthy life expectancy

Healthy life expectancy is the number of years a person can expect to live in good health rather than with a disability or in poor health.

Although women have a higher life expectancy than men in every borough, in some boroughs men have a longer healthy life expectancy. For example, in Tower Hamlets a man can expect to live 65.3 years in good health, compared to 57.8 years for a woman.

Albeit rec…

Data source: Mid-year population estimates, ONS (2022). Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality, 2021 Census. Ethnic group populations, 2021 Census.

Population change

Around 8.9 million people live in London, which had overall growth since 2012 of 6.2% - slightly lower than the rest of England’s growth of 6.3%. This growth was strongest in East London which saw an increase of 9.5%. South and West London also had sizeable population increases of 5.2% and 6.7% respectively.Central London had the smallest population increase, of just 1.4%. 

(Note: The map at the bottom of the page shows which boroughs make up London’s sub-regions of Central, East, North, South and West). 

Population density

London’s population is 15 times more dense than the rest of England, with 5,640 people per km2 compared to 375 people per km2. Central Londo…

Net migration to or from London and the rest of England by age (2019 and 2020)

This indicator shows the difference between the number of people arriving and leaving London, by different age groups. A negative number shows that there are more people leaving than arriving.

In 2020, London saw large net inflows of those aged between 20 and 24 (24,043 people) and a small inflow for those aged between 25 and 29 (2,376 people). In contrast, net migration was negative for those aged below 19 and above 29. The largest negative net flow was for those between the age of 30 and 39, where 35,645 more people were leaving than arriving in London. This number gradually decreases as the age groups become older. 

Additionally those between the age of 0 and 4 see a large negative net migration of 14,780, which most likely refer to the families with children moving out of London and into the rest of England.

Compared to the previous yea…

Migration in and out of London over time (2010/11 - 2019/20)

Net migration plays a relatively small role in explaining the increase in population seen in London over the last decade. Other indicators on London's Poverty Profile show that the fact that there are far more births than deaths in London each year (over 57,000 more births than deaths in 2019/20) is the main contributor to London’s increasing population. In fact, net migration reduced the overall population of London by 17,000 people in 2019/20, as more people left London than moved to London.

London net migratory balance has been decreasing since 2014/15, when the capital attracted almost 50,000 new residents from elsewhere, to 2018/19 and 2019/20, years in which London lost 17,000 residents due to migratory movements. In the last decade, London has consistently had a negative balance regarding net domestic migration, as more people leav…

Net migration between Inner and Outer London by age group (2020)

This indicator shows the difference between the number of people arriving and leaving either Inner and Outer London, by different age groups. A negative number shows that there are more people leaving than arriving.

The latest mid-year figures (the year up to June 2020) show that Inner London experienced the largest net inflows of those aged between 20 and 24 –  with a net inflow of 15,950 people. However, when compared to pre-pandemic levels in 2019,  this is almost 10,000 fewer people. Additionally, the next highest inflow levels were for those aged between 25 and 29 in Inner London –  with a net of 5,578 people in 2020. However, this is less than half of the people in comparison to pre-pandemic levels in 2019 (12,107 people).

Outer London saw a net inflow of those aged between 20 and 24 (9,463 similar to the previous year’s 9,360 people…

Old-age dependency ratio by area over time (2000-2035)

This indicator shows how many older people (65+) there are for every 100 working-age adults (16-64). It reflects the level of support working-age people and national and local government might need to provide to those who are retired.

Both Inner and Outer London have a lower old-age dependency ratio than the rest of England. In Inner London in 2022, there were 12.7 people over the age of 65 for every 100 working-age adults. This compares to 21 in Outer London and 32.1 in the rest of England.

Over the next decade, as the population ages, the dependency ratio is projected to increase quite rapidly.

Net population change in London (2010/11 - 2019/20)

Each year, the number of births in London significantly outweighs the number of deaths. This means that natural population change (births minus deaths) is consistently a much greater contributor to population growth in London than migration. 

In 2019/20, however, natural population growth was significantly lower than in previous years (with almost 57,000 more births than deaths), mostly as a result of the higher number of deaths (presumably as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic). The impact of the pandemic on migration appears to be less evident, with a similar negative contribution to the capital’s population of 17,000 people, and similar levels of both inflows and outflows of people.

Over the last five years, the net contribution of migration to London’s population growth has been negative (-26,000), reducing in more than 7% natural popul…

London's population over time (1931-2035)

London’s population has changed dramatically over the past century. This indicator shows how many people lived in London throughout the decades, and how the population is likely to change in the future.

1939-1991: Post-war falling population

In 1939, 8.6 million people lived in the capital. Over the following decades, the population fell steadily to 6.8 million in 1991.The fall was most pronounced in Inner London, which saw its population reduce by almost half over 50 years.

1991-2035: Growing population

London’s population has been recovering since the early 1990s. In 2022, a new high of 8.9 million people lived in the city.

This growth has been seen in both Inner and Outer London - although Inner London is still 1.4 million short of its peak, in 1931. By 2035, London’s population is expected to increase to a total population of 9.6 million.

Proportion of households in poverty by family type (2021/22)

Poverty rates are highest among families made up of single adults with children. In both London and the rest of England 45% of these family types are counted as being in poverty. Other single person household types follow next, with couple households showing lower poverty rates. Couples without children are the least likely to be in poverty - 14% of this family type were in poverty in London for 2021/22.

If we look at the proportion of all families in poverty in London, those with children make up more than half (55%) with single persons without children making up nearly a third (32%).

Proportion of adults in poverty by highest obtained qualification level (2019-20)

People with higher qualification levels are less likely to live in poverty. In London, 36% of people with less than 5 GCSEs and equivalent as their highest qualifications were in poverty. This compares to 21% of people with 5 GCSEs or higher as their highest qualifications.

As with other poverty indicators, poverty rates are greater in London than the rest of England for both people with and without GCSEs. In fact, poverty rates in London for those with 5 GCSEs or higher are only three percentage points lower than for those with low qualifications in the rest of England.

Premature deaths per 100,000 under-75 year olds by London borough (2022)

When somebody under the age of 75 dies, it counts as a premature death. This indicator shows the number of premature deaths per 100,000 under-75 year olds in each London borough.

The average number of deaths per 100,000 under-75 year olds in England is 342, whereas in London it is 309.

Eight London boroughs have a rate of premature deaths higher than England’s average. These boroughs are generally in the east of the city- such as Barking and Dagenham (433 per 100,000 under-75 year olds), Hackney (404), and Tower Hamlets (394). The borough with the lowest premature death rate is Richmond (225 per 100,000).

City of London’s figures have been suppressed since their data sample is too small.

Highest qualification levels obtained for working-age population by London borough (2021)

There is a large variation between London boroughs in terms of the proportion of the working-age population that have degree-level or above qualifications. Lambeth has the highest proportion (71%) of its working-age population with degree-level or above qualifications, whilst Barking and Dagenham has the lowest (26%). In addition, this borough also has the highest proportion of people without any formal qualifications - just over 1 in 10 of the working population in Barking and Dagenham (12%).

Not all boroughs are represented within this chart due to small sample size suppressions in the source data. Further details can be found in the downloadable CSV file.

Numbers of non-working men and women aged 16-64 in London (2020 Q1 and 2023 Q3)

This indicator shows the reasons for not working for men and women, as well as the number of working-age people not working in London.

The number of men not working increased from 2020 Q1 to 2023 Q3 from 610k to 678k, while the number of women fell from 908k to 887k.

The largest difference between men and women is the proportion of those who do not work because they are looking after their family or home. While only 3.7% of non-working men fall in this category, 32.5% of women do.

The proportion of women who cite looking after family or home as their reason for not working fell in 2023 Q3 compared to 2020 Q1 from 36.2% to 32.5%, and so did the absolute number (329k to 289k). On the contrary, the proportion of women who were unemployed increased from 10.7% to 12.3%, with the absolute number rising from 98k to 109k. This change in composition…

Population by age-groups (2021)

More than one in five people living in Inner London (23.1%) are aged between 25 and 34. This compares to just 12.7% of those in the rest of England. More broadly, in Inner London, almost half the population is made up out of those who are in their early twenties to early forties (47.2%), compared to the rest of England where three in 10 (31.1%) are in this age group, and Inner London is home to a higher proportion of young people than Outer London.

This is caused by people moving to Inner London for work early in their careers and then leaving as they start families. The largest five-year age band is 25 to 29 year olds in Inner London, 35 to 39 year olds in Outer London and 50 to 54 year olds in the rest of England. A relatively small proportion of London’s population is over 65; 9.4% in Inner London and 13.6% in Outer London compared to …