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Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects different groups in London.

An interactive map looking at the relationship ethnicity and deprivation in London's neighbourhoods.

GCSE attainment by ethnicity (2022/23)

GCSE attainment is higher in London than in England overall. This is true for both boys and girls, students who do not speak English as a first language, students with Special Educational Needs and students from minority ethnic backgrounds.

Attainment decreased from 2021/22 to 2022/23 in London and England across almost all groups. The only exceptions were Chinese students in London, whose grades improved, and Chinese students in England, whose grades stayed stable. The largest relative fall in attainment was recorded for students with a Special Educational Needs statement.

The decrease in grades from 2021/22 to 2022/23 is likely due to a return to normal examination formats after the big disruptions to the education system caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the previous two years, GCSE exams were cancelled - instead, students obtained te…

Data source: Mid-year population estimates, ONS (2022). Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality, 2021 Census. Ethnic group populations, 2021 Census.

Population change

Around 8.9 million people live in London, which had overall growth since 2012 of 6.2% - slightly lower than the rest of England’s growth of 6.3%. This growth was strongest in East London which saw an increase of 9.5%. South and West London also had sizeable population increases of 5.2% and 6.7% respectively.Central London had the smallest population increase, of just 1.4%. 

(Note: The map at the bottom of the page shows which boroughs make up London’s sub-regions of Central, East, North, South and West). 

Population density

London’s population is 15 times more dense than the rest of England, with 5,640 people per km2 compared to 375 people per km2. Central Londo…

Proportion of London residents' jobs paid below London Living Wage by employment type (2005-2023)

This page looks at jobs held by London residents that are paid below the London Living Wage broken down by:

  • employment type (full-time and part-time)
  • sex
  • sex and employment type
  • ethnicity
  • disability
  • qualification level
  • employment status (permanent and non-permanent)

These jobs may be located within London or outside the capital. For a similar analysis focused on jobs located in London only, please see 'Low-paid jobs in London'.

The London Living Wage was introduced in 2005. It is a voluntary wage rate based on the amount of money that people need to live. The rate in London in April 2023 when the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings we use for this analysis was conducted was £11.95.

The proportion of low-paid jobs held by Londoners has increased slightly in 2023 (16.4%) compared to 2022 (16.2%); this follows a steady decline since 2018 th…

Proportion of households in poverty by ethnicity (2022/23)

Last updated: May 2024
Next estimated update: May 2025

What does this indicator show?

This indicator shows the proportion of people living in poverty in London and the rest of England (after housing costs) split by ethnicity.

What does it tell us?

Poverty rates are highest among the Bangladeshi minority ethnic group with 63% being counted as in-poverty. This is followed by the “any other Asian background” group for whom the poverty rate is 41%.

Poverty rates for minority ethnic groups follow the same order in both London and the rest of Engand. The groups least likely to be in-poverty in London are “Mixed/Multiple Ethnic” (24%) and “White” (17%). 

Want to know more?

If you want to explore this data in more depth, check the 'data source and notes' button on the above charts. This will tell you where the data comes from, where you may be able to d…

Poverty rates by demographic characteristics in London (2022/23)

Last updated: May 2024
Next estimated update: May 2025

What does this indicator show?

This indicator shows the poverty rate in London (after housing costs) by demographics. A person is classed as being in poverty if they earn below 60% of the median income. You can find out more about how poverty is measured here.

For further breakdowns by demographics, explore poverty by ethnicity, poverty by age, poverty by family type and disability and poverty.

What does it tell us?

Poverty rates vary significantly across different demographic groups in London. The highest poverty rates are experienced by workless families (50%) and households comprised of single people with children (47%). Black and minority ethnic groups are far more likely to be in poverty (34%) than white people (17%), and single pensioners also see a higher than average poverty rate a…

Proportion of London's working-age population who are not in paid work by ethnic group (2013 Q4, 2020 Q1 and 2023 Q4)

Last updated: June 2024
Next estimated update:
September 2024

What does this indicator show?

This indicator shows the proportion of people who are not in paid work in London, split by ethnicity. 

Worklessness here is different from unemployment. Unemployment only includes people who are ‘economically active’ - those who are in work, looking for work, or able to start work soon. The figure here also includes ‘economically inactive’ people, which includes people who are unable to work as they are studying, retired, sick, or a family carer. This means that the figures in this indicator are much higher than unemployment rates. See reasons for not working.

What does it tell us?

39.5% of working-age Londoners with Pakistani/Bangladeshi backgrounds are not working - more than any other group shown here. Black Londoners have the second highest proport…

Worklessness for men and women in London by country of birth (2021/22 Q1)

Just under two-thirds (63%) of working-age women in London who were born in Bangladesh did not work in the year to March 2021/22, the highest rate of any nationality. Pakistani women are not far behind with 61% not working. Of men in London who were born overseas, those from China have the highest rate of worklessness (28%).

Women originally from Portugal had the lowest rates of worklessness (2%), while those from Sri Lanka had the lowest rate for men (9%). For most countries, the worklessness rate is higher for women than men, although this trend does not hold true for countries such as Lithuania, Portugal, France, Romania, Poland and Italy.