Thresholds to determine better or worse comparisons for London are based on standard deviations from the median.
For England thresholds we use apply the London borough standard deviations to the England value
London plan areas are as set out by Greater London Authority - see annex 2 p502 https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/the_london_plan_2021.pdf
Nearest neighbours are produced by CIPFA https://www.cipfa.org/services/cipfastats/nearest-neighbour-model
Indicator data sources
Poverty rate: Poverty rates by London borough (2019/2020)
Office for National Statistics, Social and Vital Statistics Division, NatCen Social Research, Department for Work and Pensions. (2021). Family Resources Survey, 2005/06-2019/20, Households Below Average Income, 1994/95-2019/20 and Pensioners' Income, 2007/08-2019/20: Safe Room Access. [data collection]. 11th Edition. UK Data Service. SN: 7196, DOI: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-7196-12
Child poverty rate: Proportion of children in poverty before and after housing costs by London borough (2020/21)
Local indicators of child poverty, Centre for Research in Social Policy, Loughborough University for End Child Poverty
Income inequality: London boroughs median income deprivation ranking relative to London and rest of England (2019)
English Indices of Deprivation, Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government
80:20 earnings ratio: Pay inequality (80:20 hourly wage ratio) by London borough
Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings via NOMIS, ONS
Main homelessness duty: Homelessness duties owed by London boroughs (2021 Q3)
Initial assessments of statutory homelessness duties owed, Department for Levelling Up, Housing & Communities and Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government
Low pay (resident): Proportion of borough residents' jobs that are low paid (2021)
Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, ONS
Households in temporary accommodation: Proportion of households in temporary accommodation in London boroughs (2022 Q1)
Statutory homelessness live tables, Detailed local authority level tables, Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government.
Repossessions: Repossessions by county court bailiffs in London boroughs (2021/2022 Q2)
Mortgage and landlord possession statistics 2021 Q3 to 2022 Q2 and 2019, Ministry of Justice. 2018 based Household projections, ONS
Housing affordability: Rent for a one bedroom dwelling as a percentage of gross pay by London borough (April 2021 - March 2022)
Private rental market statistics (April 2021 - March 2022), ONS and Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (2021), ONS via NOMIS
Housing completions: Average annual net completions of affordable and market housing units by London borough (2016/17 - 2018/19)
The London Plan Annual Monitoring Report, GLA via London Datastore
People seen sleeping rough: People sleeping rough in 2021/22 according to both the CHAIN and Spotlight counts
CHAIN from St. Mungo's via London Datastore (2021/22) and Spotlight from MHCLG (2021)
Unemployment rate and Unemployment rate change: Unemployment rate by London borough (2016-19 Q2 and 2019-22 Q2)
Annual Population Survey via NOMIS, ONS.
Out of work benefits: Percentage of population aged 16 to 64 on out-of-work benefits by benefit type across London boroughs (2017, 2020 and 2022 Q1)
Benefit Combinations via StatXplore, DWP. Mid-year population estimates via Nomis, ONS.
19-yr old without level 3 qualifications: 19-year-olds without Level 2 or 3 qualifications (2004/05-2020/21)
Department for Education, Level 2 and 3 attainment by young people aged 19
Infant mortality: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births by London borough (2018-20)
Public Health England
Old-age mortality: Premature deaths per 100,000 under-75 year olds by London borough (2018-20)
Public Health England
19-yr olds who achieve grade 9-4 GCSE: Pass rate for English and Maths by London borough (2021)
Statistics: GCSEs (key stage 4), Department for Education
Proportion with no qualifications: Highest qualification levels obtained for working-age population by borough (2021)
Annual Population Survey, NOMIS.