Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects men and women in London.
Actual weekly hours by gross weekly pay quintile across Q2 - Q3 in London and the rest of England (2010-2021)
Looking at hours worked within London and the rest of England can give us a useful insight on our working patterns pre- and post-pandemic. Actual hours worked are heavily impacted by external factors, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas usual hours are not expected to change much over the years.
Actual hours worked varied particularly between 2019 and 2020 for the bottom income quintiles within England. Within London, the decline in actual hours worked for the 2nd income quintile is most extreme between 2019 and 2020 - dropping from 36.8 to 25.6 hours per week. For almost all income quintiles, the amount of actual hours worked has bounced back to pre-pandemic levels as the economy recovers. However, for those in the 2nd income quintile, the amount of hours in 2021 (33.1 hours) are still below pre-pandemic levels in 2019 (36.8 hours).
Economic activity status of Londoners aged 16 and over (2023 Q2)
More than 4.7 million Londoners – 66.1% of the adult population – were in work of some kind in the year to June 2023. This is higher than the 60.2% of adults who are employed in the rest of England. Nearly one third of adults in London are classed as economically inactive (30.7%) - which means they are not employed, and not looking for a job or able to start work. There are many reasons someone might be economically inactive, such as because they are too ill to work, retired, or a student.
There are over 313,000 more men in work in London than women. Men who live in London are also more likely to be self-employed than women – 14.1% compared to 7.8%.
Women are significantly more likely to be economically inactive than men, with 38.5% of women not working compared to 29.3% of men. For many types of inactivity, women and men have very simil…
Life expectancy at birth by borough for men and women (2018-20)
Share your thoughts on London's Poverty Profile and win £200 in vouchers ahead of Christmas! Take our 5-minute survey to be entered in the draw.
This indicator shows overall life expectancy at birth as well as healthy life expectancy. The latter indicates the number of years a person can expect to live in good health rather than with a disability or in poor health.
Overall life expectancy is consistently higher for women than for men in 2018 to 2020. This is true across all London boroughs. However, this is less clear for healthy life expectancy, with some boroughs having a longer healthy life expectancy for men than women. For example, healthy life expectancy for men in Tower Hamlets is 65.3 years whereas for women it is only 57.8 years.
The highest life expectancy for both women is in Kensington and Chelsea, with 87.9 and for men is …
Proportion of London residents' jobs paid below London Living Wage by full-time/part-time status (2005-2022)
This page looks at jobs held by London residents that are paid below the London Living Wage broken down by:
- employment type (full-time and part-time)
- sex and employment type
- qualification level
- employment status (permanent and non-permanent)
These jobs may be located within London or outside the capital. For a similar analysis focused on jobs located in London only, please see 'Low-paid jobs in London'.
The London Living Wage was introduced in 2005. It is a voluntary wage rate based on the amount of money that people need to live. The rate in London in April 2022 when the earnings survey we use for this analysis was conducted was £11.05. Low-paid jobs held by Londoners rose over the decade to 2015, when almost 1 in 4 jobs (23.4%) held by Londoners were low-paid.
Although the number of jobs held by London residents in low-p…
Proportion of borough residents' jobs that are low paid (2022)
This page looks at jobs paid below London Living Wage across London boroughs. Here we use data restricted to jobs held by people who live in London (residence-based), and their job may be based outside of London. For jobs located in boroughs, please see 'Low-paid jobs in London', chart four.
Most boroughs follow the same trend for London as a whole, with significant increases in low-paid jobs held by residents in most London boroughs between 2012 and 2020, and reductions in 2021 and 2022 (partly reflecting the distorting effects of the pandemic and furlough in London labour markets).
Brent was the borough in 2022 that saw the highest proportion of residents’ jobs being paid less than the London Living Wage with 23.6% followed by Newham at 21.2%. By contrast, Wandsworth and Hammersmith and Fulham were the only boroughs with less t…
People sleeping rough in London by country/continent of origin (2008/09 - 2022/23)
The number of people sleeping rough in London more than tripled between 2008/09 and 2020/21 from around 3,472 to 11,018. 2021/22 saw the number fall back somewhat to 8,329 but it increased again in 2022/23 to 10,053.
Most people sleeping rough are white, although across the time series the number of BAME people sleeping rough has risen faster than the number of white people. Of the people whose country/continent of origin is known, just under half are British citizens, with people from the rest of Europe making up most of the rest. A large majority (83%) of people sleeping rough in London are men.
More people sleep rough in Central London than in any other part of the capital. This is consistently the case, but the proportion of people sleeping rough who do so in Central London reducing over the 15 year period from more than three quarters…
Poverty rates by demographic characteristics in London (2021/22)
Poverty rates vary significantly across different demographic groups in London. The highest poverty rates are experienced by workless families (52%) and households comprised of single people with children (47%). Black and minority ethnic groups are far more likely to be in poverty (33%) than white people (18%), and single pensioners also see a higher than average poverty rate at 30%.
Generally speaking all the groups included here have seen declining poverty rates since 2018/19 (the peak of the overall time series) apart from single pensioners, couples without children and workless families.
Unemployment rates in London for men and women (Oct 1992 - Oct 2022)
The unemployment rate in London more than halved since its post-financial crisis peak in 2011 (10.3%) to 4.5% in 2019. 2020 saw it increase substantially to 6.5%, reaching levels not seen since 2015. This increase is likely the result of the slowdown of the economy caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Other factors, such as those put on furlough and the change in inactivity within the labour market, should also be considered. Unemployment rates sharply decreased again in 2022 a year when pandemic restrictions were lifted, reaching their lowest level since 1992 (4.5% in August to October 2022).
Over the past three decades, the gender split of unemployment has become more even overall. In 1993 the unemployment rate was more than 40% higher amongst men compared to women, but by the early 2010s the numbers were broadly similar for both genders. S…
Proportion of workers in London in temporary employment (2011-2022 Q2)
Just over 5% of people in work in London are on temporary contracts. Temporary contracts are more prevalent amongst women in work than men: 30% more women than men were on a temporary contract in 2022 (Q2).
The proportion of workers on temporary contracts has remained relatively consistent over the past decade, fluctuating between just over 4.5% and just under 6% of all workers. In 2022 (Q2), 0.84% of women in work and 0.66% of men in work were on a temporary contract and reported that it was because they could not find a permanent job
Worklessness for men and women in London by country of birth (2021/22 Q1)
Just under two-thirds (63%) of working-age women in London who were born in Bangladesh did not work in the year to March 2021/22, the highest rate of any nationality. Pakistani women are not far behind with 61% not working. Of men in London who were born overseas, those from China have the highest rate of worklessness (28%).
Women originally from Portugal had the lowest rates of worklessness (2%), while those from Sri Lanka had the lowest rate for men (9%). For most countries, the worklessness rate is higher for women than men, although this trend does not hold true for countries such as Lithuania, Portugal, France, Romania, Poland and Italy.